What Is the Deep Web?
The internet is often described as an iceberg: What you see on the surface of the water is just the tip of the giant mass underneath. And it's true that most of the web's content isn't accessible to average users without a special browser (like Tor). This is what we call the deep web. It's a part of the internet that can't be searched by regular search engines like Google or Bing and requires specialized software to access (Tor). Estimates suggest it makes up 96% to 99% of the Internet, and while some people use it for illicit reasons, others do so for legitimate purposes such as medical records, fee-based content, membership websites, and confidential corporate web pages. While it can be tricky to navigate, some security professionals find it useful for communicating with family abroad, defending freedom of speech and reporting on corruption and abuse. It can also help protect against breaches from compromised data that's leaked from the indexed, or "surface," web. Unlike the indexed web, which is open to all, the dark net is accessible only through Tor's network of computers called "nodes." Messages sent over Tor are relayed from one node to the next, with each node adding an additional layer of encryption. This can make it extremely difficult to track a user's identity. However, it's still possible for cybercriminals to intercept messages and inject malware. That's why it's important to keep your Tor software and computer up to date.
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